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Health Advisory: ZIKA Virus

0 Members and 1 Guest are viewing this topic.

Offline frankiko

on: February 03, 2016, 08:23:45 AM
"The World Health Organisation has declared that the clusters of brain-damaged babies born in Brazil – linked to but not proven to be caused by the Zika virus – constitute a public health emergency of international concern."

Just recently local news channels had reported international issues including the rise of a virus relatively unknown to most Filipinos. The Zika virus. And since it's a vector-borne  entity (meaning an insect or another animal acts as a transmitter of the virus), and having Aedes aegypti (same mosquito that carries Dengue) as it's vector, I decided to post this to give you guys a heads up.

Here's a simple, easy-to-understand info from the US CDC (center for Disease Control and Prevention)

Zika Virus Disease Q & A

What is Zika virus disease (Zika)?
Zika is a disease caused by Zika virus that is spread to people primarily through the bite of an infected Aedes species mosquito. The most common symptoms of Zika are fever, rash, joint pain, and conjunctivitis (red eyes). The illness is usually mild with symptoms lasting for several days to a week.

What are the symptoms of Zika?
About 1 in 5 people infected with Zika will get sick. For people who get sick, the illness is usually mild. For this reason, many people might not realize they have been infected.
The most common symptoms of Zika virus disease are fever, rash, joint pain, or conjunctivitis (red eyes). Symptoms typically begin 2 to 7 days after being bitten by an infected mosquito.

How is Zika transmitted?
Zika is primarily transmitted through the bite of infected Aedes mosquitoes, the same mosquitoes that spread Chikungunya and dengue. These mosquitoes are aggressive daytime biters and they can also bite at night. Mosquitoes become infected when they bite a person already infected with the virus. Infected mosquitoes can then spread the virus to other people through bites. It can also be transmitted from a pregnant mother to her baby during pregnancy or around the time of birth. We do not know how often Zika is transmitted from mother to baby during pregnancy or around the time of birth.

Who is at risk of being infected?
Anyone who is living in or traveling to an area where Zika virus is found who has not already been infected with Zika virus is at risk for infection, including pregnant women.

What countries have Zika?
Specific areas where Zika virus transmission is ongoing are often difficult to determine and are likely to change over time. If traveling, please visit the CDC Travelers' Health site for the most updated travel information.

What can people do to prevent becoming infected with Zika?
There is no vaccine to prevent Zika. The best way to prevent diseases spread by mosquitoes is to avoid being bitten. Protect yourself and your family from mosquito bites. Here’s how:

Wear long-sleeved shirts and long pants.

Stay in places with air conditioning or that use window and door screens to keep mosquitoes outside.

Use Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)-registered insect repellents. All EPA-registered insect repellents are evaluated for effectiveness.

Always follow the product label instructions.
        Reapply insect repellent as directed.
        Do not spray repellent on the skin under clothing.
        If you are also using sunscreen, apply sunscreen before applying insect repellent.

If you have a baby or child:
   Do not use insect repellent on babies younger than 2 months of age.
   Dress your child in clothing that covers arms and legs, or
   Cover crib, stroller, and baby carrier with mosquito netting.
   Do not apply insect repellent onto a child’s hands, eyes, mouth, and cut or
             irritated skin.
        Adults: Spray insect repellent onto your hands and then apply to a child’s face.
   
Treat clothing and gear with permethrin or purchase permethrin-treated items.
   Treated clothing remains protective after multiple washings.
   If treating items yourself, follow the product instructions carefully.
   Do NOT use permethrin products directly on skin. They are intended to treat clothing.

Sleep under a mosquito bed net if you are overseas or outside and are not able to protect yourself from mosquito bites.

What is the treatment for Zika?
There is no vaccine or specific medicine to treat Zika virus infections.
Treat the symptoms:
   Get plenty of rest.
   Drink fluids to prevent dehydration.
   Take medicine such as acetaminophen to reduce fever and pain.
   Do not take aspirin or other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.
   If you are taking medicine for another medical condition, talk to your healthcare provider before taking additional medication.

How is Zika diagnosed?
   See your healthcare provider if you develop symptoms (fever, rash, joint pain, red eyes). If you have recently traveled, tell your healthcare provider.
   Your healthcare provider may order blood tests to look for Zika or other similar viral diseases like dengue or chikungunya.

What should I do if I have Zika?
Treat the symptoms:

Get plenty of rest
Drink fluids to prevent dehydration
Take medicine such as acetaminophen to reduce fever and pain
Do not take aspirin or other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs

During the first week of infection, Zika virus can be found in the blood and passed from an infected person to another person through mosquito bites. An infected mosquito can then spread the virus to other people. To help prevent others from getting sick, avoid mosquito bites during the first week of illness.

See your healthcare provider if you are pregnant and develop a fever, rash, joint pain, or red eyes within 2 weeks after traveling to a country where Zika virus cases have been reported. Be sure to tell your health care provider where you traveled.

Is there a vaccine to prevent or medicine to treat Zika?
No. There is no vaccine to prevent infection or medicine to treat Zika.

Are you immune for life once infected?
Once a person has been infected, he or she is likely to be protected from future infections.

Does Zika virus infection in pregnant women cause birth defects?
There have been reports of a serious birth defect of the brain called microcephaly (a condition in which a baby’s head is smaller than expected when compared to babies of the same six and age) and other poor pregnancy outcomes in babies of mothers who were infected with Zika virus while pregnant. Knowledge of the link between Zika and these outcomes is evolving, but until more is known, CDC recommends special precautions for the following groups:

Women who are pregnant (in any trimester):
   Consider postponing travel to any area where Zika virus transmission is ongoing.
   If you must travel to one of these areas, talk to your doctor first and strictly follow steps to prevent mosquito bitesduring your trip.

Women who are trying to become pregnant:
   Before you travel, talk to your doctor about your plans to become pregnant and the risk of Zika virus infection.

Strictly follow steps to prevent mosquito bites during your trip.

Does Zika virus infection cause Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS)?
Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) is a rare disorder where a person’s own immune system damages the nerve cells, causing muscle weakness and sometimes, paralysis. These symptoms can last a few weeks or several months. While most people fully recover from GBS, some people have permanent damage and in rare cases, people have died.
We do not know if Zika virus infection causes GBS. It is difficult to determine if any particular pathogen “caused” GBS. The Brazil Ministry of Health is reporting an increased number of people affected with GBS. CDC is working to determine if Zika and GBS are related.

Is this a new virus?
No. Outbreaks of Zika previously have been reported in tropical Africa, Southeast Asia, and the Pacific Islands. Zika virus likely will continue to spread to new areas. In May 2015, the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) issued an alert regarding the first confirmed Zika virus infection in Brazil.

How many travel-associated cases have been diagnosed in the United States?
CDC continues to work with states to monitor the United States for mosquito-borne diseases, including Zika. In 2016, Zika became a nationally notifiable condition. Healthcare providers are encouraged to report suspected cases to their state or local health departments to facilitate diagnosis and mitigate the risk of local transmission.  To date, local transmission of Zika virus has not been identified in the continental United States. Limited local transmission may occur in the mainland United States but it’s unlikely that we will see widespread transmission of Zika in the mainland U.S.

Should we be concerned about Zika in the United States?
The U.S. mainland does have Aedes species mosquitoes that can become infected with and spread Zika virus. U.S. travelers who visit a country where Zika is found could become infected if bitten by a mosquito.

With the recent outbreaks, the number of Zika virus disease cases among travelers visiting or returning to the United States will likely increase. These imported cases may result in local spread of the virus in some areas of the United States. CDC has been monitoring these epidemics and is prepared to address cases imported into the United States and cases transmitted locally.

What is CDC doing about Zika?
CDC has been aware of Zika for some time and has been preparing for its possible introduction into the United States.Laboratories in many countries have been trained to test for chikungunya and dengue. These skills have prepared these laboratories for Zika testing.

CDC is working with international public health partners and with state health departments to
   Alert healthcare providers and the public about Zika.
   Provide state health laboratories with diagnostic tests.
   Detect and report cases, which will help prevent further spread.

The arrival of Zika in the Americas demonstrates the risks posed by this and other exotic viruses. CDC’s health security plans are designed to effectively monitor for disease, equip diagnostic laboratories, and support mosquito control programs both in the United States and around the world.

credits to sources.

 :book1:


Pinoytambay

Health Advisory: ZIKA Virus
« on: February 03, 2016, 08:23:45 AM »

Online chazer

Reply #1 on: February 03, 2016, 04:36:41 PM
tnx for the info!  can i copy/paste this for info dissemination to my family and friends?  it would definitely a lot of help to all if i could have this in hard copy...  tnx again!


Offline Heathcliff

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Reply #2 on: February 03, 2016, 07:37:35 PM


same symptoms and diagnosis with Dengue...but much worse ang effect once na infect ka...lalo na dun sa mga pregnant women...nadagdagan na naman ang mga causes ng fatal deaths during childbirth...

Thanks TS for sharing this article.very helpful and informative indeed.

 :book1: :book1: :book1:





~  Amor Gignit Amorem. ~


Pinoytambay

Re: Health Advisory: ZIKA Virus
« Reply #2 on: February 03, 2016, 07:37:35 PM »

Offline frankiko

Reply #3 on: February 04, 2016, 08:00:58 AM
Thanks sir @chazer for reading through.. You may go ahead and share this info with friends and relatives. Hope this help prevent panic and confusion. :-)

Thanks mam @Schy for reading. :-)

On topic:

CDC also reports on the mode of transmission:

Through mosquito bites

Zika virus is transmitted to people primarily through the bite of an infected Aedes species mosquito (A. aegypti and A. albopictus). These are the same mosquitoes that spread dengue and chikungunya viruses.

These mosquitoes typically lay eggs in and near standing water in things like buckets, bowls, animal dishes, flower pots and vases.  They prefer to bite people, and live indoors and outdoors near people.

Mosquitoes that spread chikungunya, dengue, and Zika are aggressive daytime biters. They can also bite at night.

Mosquitoes become infected when they feed on a person already infected with the virus. Infected mosquitoes can then spread the virus to other people through bites.

Rarely, from mother to child

A mother already infected with Zika virus near the time of delivery can pass on the virus to her newborn around the time of birth, but this is rare.

It is possible that Zika virus could be passed from a mother to her baby during pregnancy. We are studying how some mothers can pass the virus to their babies.

To date, there are no reports of infants getting Zika virus through breastfeeding. Because of the benefits of breastfeeding, mothers are encouraged to breastfeed even in areas where Zika virus is found.

Through infected blood or sixual contact

Spread of the virus through blood transfusion and sixual contact have been reported.

Dito naman sa atin...
1,000 kits available in PH for Zika virus testing – DOH

Health Secretary Janette Garin says stocks are limited worldwide and the government will only use theirs for 'necessary' cases

Ms. Patty Pasion writes for Rappler.com

MANILA, Philippines – Health Secretary Janette Garin on Tuesday, February 2, said there are 1,000 kits available for testing Zika virus at the Research Institute for Tropical Medicine (RITM) in Muntinlupa City.

Another batch of 1,000 kits will be delivered in two weeks.

However, she noted that the Department of Health (DOH) cannot use these to test just anyone. There is lack of enough kits available worldwide.

“We do not like to create panic or overreact because we would like to target our resources where it is necessary,” Garin said.

Garin told reporters that the testing kit for Zika virus is not available commercially and only research centers such as Center for Disease Control (CDC) in Atlanta, Georgia, in the United Staes has it.

The government’s supply was just a surplus when kits were delivered to the country back in 2012. (READ: Palace cautions public on Zika virus)

She also said that, at present, research centers and the World Health Organization are still in the process of optimizing and producing more effective test kits.

In 2012, a 15-year-old boy in the Philippines was reported with symptoms of fever, headache, conjunctivitis, sore throat, and muscle pains. The boy tested negative for dengue and Chikungunya but positive for the Zika virus. He eventually recovered after 3 weeks of bed rest and medication.

“The only reason why we have supply is because when there is a possible suspect, we test it immediately. If it appeared positive, we report it immediately to the IHR (International Health Regulations),” Garin explained in Filipino.

“Kung meron tayong (If we have) stocks, 'wag nating abusuhin (let us not abuse its use). We don’t waste our resources and we will use it at the appropriate time.”

Zika virus is a light case of the flu that is transmitted by mosquito species found in tropical and sub-tropical regions: Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus, or tiger mosquitoes. The World Health Organization (WHO) has just declared it a global threat.

‘Only a risk’

Asked if the virus is a threat locally, the health secretary clarified that the Philippines is not yet affected. She stressed, however, that the government remains vigilant in watching out for the outbreak since the mosquito carrying the virus is present in the Philippines.

“We have reviewed cases of microcephaly in the past 10 years, and it only totaled to 332. There is no upsurge trend,” Garin said in a mix of English and Filipino.

Currently, RITM is set to train 5 other public hospitals to be capable of using the detection kits for Zika virus. These include the Lung Center of the Philippines, Baguio General Hospital, San Lazaro Hospital, Southern Philippine Medical Center, and the Vicente Sotto Memorial Medical Center.

The DOH, through the Bureau of Quarantine, is also detecting incoming Filipinos or tourists who have fever. But detection in airports is limited because 75% of the time, people infected with the virus do not manifest symptom. Garin called on airports to keep their facilities sanitized.

She also sought the cooperation of households to safeguard their environment from the infection by observing cleanliness.

“The first step to prevent mosquito-borne diseases is within our homes. We should not only remember the information being delivered by DOH to the communities. Instead, let us make it a practice and instill cleanliness in our surroundings,” she said in a statement.

No travel ban

According to the DOH, they are not issuing any travel ban – even to countries affected with the disease, which are mostly in South America.

Expectant mothers – or those planning to have a baby soon – are however advised not to visit these places.

“Zika virus per se direct to the patient is not alarming. What is alarming is the possible causes to the fetus for the first 3 months of pregnancy,” Garin noted.

She also warned: “There is one case of a woman who tested positive for Zika but she had no travel history. Turns out, her husband, who also tested positive, had travel history. There is a possibility it was sixually transmitted because the virus was found in the semen.”

But the health secretary clarified that Zika, unlike HIV and hepatitis, does not stay in the human body for life.

Credits to sources

So, sa madaling salita... Zika infection is actually milder compared to Chingkungunya and Dengue, kung ang pag-uusapan ay ang tao mismong may sakit. Para lang syang trangkaso na may kasamang "sore eyes." The "global threat" issued by the WHO is due to the increasing number of microcephalic babies in Brazil that are suspected to be linked, although not proven so, to Zika virus.

The threat is the probable increase of cases of microcephaly in newborns kung hindi mako-control yung spread.  :peace:

Kaya ang best na pwede nating gawin is take part in proper information dissemination to promote awareness and prevent panic and help prevent the spread...

 :-X


 :book1:  :peace:


Offline Heathcliff

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Reply #4 on: February 04, 2016, 12:34:46 PM


Sir Doc,

...as for the duration of the illness, halos pareho lang po ba yan ng sa dengue? of course depende sa ability ng katawan to fight off the infection...pero sa pagkaintindi ko...kapag na infect ang fetus, kahit may zika virus na sya...still, walang epekto yan during childbirth, maliban lang sa pagkakaron ng microcephaly...nde po ba nadedetect during pregnancy na infected na yung fetus? is there a way of giving cure to the baby during pregnancy? kung sa adults, mahirap madetermine kung infected na kase walang symptoms...ganun din sa fetus ...nakakatakot din yan...akala mo okay ang pregnancy mo..yun pala infected ka...and wala kang idea about it...kase walang symptoms...sana po you'll keep us posted about this...

..thanks again Sir for the additional info.... :book1: :book1: :book1: :book1:





~  Amor Gignit Amorem. ~


Pinoytambay

Re: Health Advisory: ZIKA Virus
« Reply #4 on: February 04, 2016, 12:34:46 PM »

Offline frankiko

Reply #5 on: February 07, 2016, 12:28:52 AM
Hi mam Schy, as for duration, a few days to about a week lang ang duration ng Zika virus infection. I don't know what happened to the child mentioned in the previous post, whose illness resolved after 3 weeks.. baka may iba sya problem kaya tumagal ng ganun.

As for the pregnancy-related questions, here's what the US CDC has to say:

Question and Answers: Zika virus infection (Zika) and pregnancy

Is there a vaccine to prevent or medicine to treat Zika?
No. There is no vaccine to prevent infection or medicine to treat Zika.

I am pregnant. Should I travel to a country where cases of Zika have been reported?
Until more is known, CDC recommends special precautions for pregnant women and women trying to become pregnant:

Pregnant women in any trimester should consider postponing travel to the areas where Zika virus transmission is ongoing.

Pregnant women who do travel to one of these areas should talk to their doctor or other healthcare provider first and strictly follow steps to avoid mosquito bites during the trip.

Women trying to become pregnant or who are thinking about becoming pregnant should consult with their healthcare provider before traveling to these areas and strictly follow steps to prevent mosquito bites during the trip.

Because specific areas where Zika virus transmission is ongoing are difficult to determine and likely to change over time, CDC will update this travel notice as information becomes available. Check CDC’s Zika Travel Information website frequently for the most up-to-date recommendations.

I am pregnant. How will Zika virus affect me or my unborn baby?
CDC has issued a travel notice (Level 2-Practice Enhanced Precautions) for people traveling to regions and certain countries where Zika virus transmission is ongoing.

This notice follows reports in Brazil of microcephaly and other poor pregnancy outcomes in babies of mothers who were infected with Zika virus while pregnant. However, additional studies are needed to further characterize this relationship. More studies are planned to learn more about the risks of Zika virus infection during pregnancy.


Until more is known, CDC recommends special precautions for pregnant women and women trying to become pregnant:

Pregnant women in any trimester should consider postponing travel to the areas where Zika virus transmission is ongoing.

Pregnant women who do travel to one of these areas should talk to their doctor or other healthcare provider first and strictly follow steps to avoid mosquito bites during the trip.

Women trying to become pregnant should consult with their healthcare provider before traveling to these areas and strictly follow steps to prevent mosquito bites during the trip.

Because specific areas where Zika virus transmission is ongoing are difficult to determine and likely to change over time, CDC will update this travel notice as information becomes available. Check CDC's Zika Travel Information website frequently for the most up-to-date recommendations.

Is it safe to use an insect repellent if I am pregnant or nursing?
Yes. Using an insect repellent is safe and effective. Pregnant women and women who are breastfeeding can and should choose an EPA-registered insect repellents and use it according to the product label.

If a woman who is not pregnant is bitten by a mosquito and infected with Zika virus, will her future pregnancies be at risk?
We do not know the risk to the infant if a woman is infected with Zika virus while she is pregnant. Zika virus usually remains in the blood of an infected person for only a few days to a week.  The virus will not cause infections in an infant that is conceived after the virus is cleared from the blood. There is currently no evidence that Zika virus infection poses a risk of birth defects in future pregnancies. A women contemplating pregnancy, who has recently recovered from Zika virus infection, should consult her healthcare provider after recovering.

Should a pregnant woman who traveled to an area with Zika virus be tested for the virus?
See your healthcare provider if you are pregnant and develop a fever, rash, joint pain, or red eyes within 2 weeks after traveling to a country where Zika virus cases have been reported. Be sure to tell your health care provider where you traveled.

Can a previous Zika virus infection cause someone who later becomes pregnant to have an infant with microcephaly?
We do not know the risk to the baby if a woman is infected with Zika virus while she is pregnant. However, Zika virus infection does not pose a risk of birth defects for future pregnancies. Zika virus usually remains in the blood of an infected person for about a week. The virus will not cause infections in a baby that is conceived after the virus is cleared from the blood.

Is it safe to get pregnant after traveling to a country with Zika virus?
If infected, Zika virus usually remains in the blood of an infected person for about a week. The virus will not cause infections in a baby that is conceived after the virus is cleared from the blood.

Can a pregnant woman be tested for Zika weeks or months after being in a country with Zika?
At this time, and for several reasons, we do not recommend routine Zika virus testing in pregnant women who have traveled to a country with known transmission. First, there can be false-positive results due to antibodies that are made against other related viruses. Second, we do not know the risk to the fetus if the mother tests positive for Zika virus antibodies. We also do not know if the risk is different in mothers who do or do not have symptoms due to Zika virus infection.

If a woman has traveled to an area with Zika virus transmission, should she wait to get pregnant?
We do not know the risk to an infant if a woman is infected with Zika virus while she is pregnant. Zika virus usually remains in the blood of an infected person for only a few days to a week. The virus will not cause infections in an infant that is conceived after the virus is cleared from the blood. There is currently no evidence that Zika virus infection poses a risk of birth defects in future pregnancies. A women contemplating pregnancy, who has recently travelled to an area with local Zika transmission, should consult her healthcare provider after returning.

If a mother infected with Zika near the time of delivery passes the virus to her newborn at birth, can the baby develop microcephaly?
We do not know if a newborn who gets Zika at birth will develop microcephaly after birth, which is also called acquired microcephaly. Babies can get microcephaly if their head growth slows or fails to develop after birth. There have been no reports of Zika infection around the time of birth. There have also been no reports of babies with acquired microcephaly. All reports so far have been congenital microcephaly, meaning the microcephaly occurred before birth.

Credits to source.

Attempts to answer your questions are highlighted in orange text.  :peace:

Wala pa pong sapat na data tungkol sa ugnayan ng microcephaly ng sanggol at ng zika virus infection ng nanay.

Sinusubukang i-contain ng health sector, o limitahan ang mga taong maaring maapektohan ng virus sa mga lugar kung saan ito nagmumula. Ito po ang dahilan kung bakit naglabas sila ng anunsyo. Sa ganitong pamamaraan mas madaling maiimbestigahan kung talaga bang zika ang salarin... ika nga "the suspect is presumed innocent until proven otherwise."


Additionally, as reported by theguardian.com

The World Health Organisation has declared that the clusters of brain-damaged babies born in Brazil – linked to but not proven to be caused by the Zika virus – constitute a public health emergency of international concern.

The declaration, made by the WHO director Margaret Chan, will trigger funding for research to try to establish whether the Zika virus, spread by mosquitoes, is responsible for the large numbers of babies born with abnormally small heads in Brazil. It will also put resources behind a massive effort to prevent pregnant women becoming infected and, through mosquito control, stop the virus spreading.

 :sipol: :book1:

Hope that helped. Feel free to ask po kung may queries pa.  :peace:


Offline Heathcliff

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Reply #6 on: February 07, 2016, 07:48:17 AM

awww...kakanerbyos naman yung replies higlighted in orange...hanging pa rin...but still, these are all helpful informations that could raise the public's awareness regarding the medical issue about the zika virus.

ika nga nila....prevention is much better than cure. (pero sana meron na vaccine para dito...) :P :P :P

thanks again DoKiko... :peace:



~  Amor Gignit Amorem. ~


Offline naruto789544

Reply #7 on: February 14, 2016, 01:59:37 AM
very informative and timely sir @frankiko... hope this can be contained asap to prevent it from spreading more...


Offline ladyvirus01

Reply #8 on: February 15, 2016, 07:43:08 PM
My share..... (Sorry if it is already posted)

Symptoms, Diagnosis, &  Treatment
   
 Symptoms
About 1 in 5 people infected with Zika virus become ill (i.e., develop Zika).
The most common symptoms of Zika are fever, rash, joint pain, or conjunctivitis (red eyes). Other common symptoms include muscle pain and headache. The incubation period (the time from exposure to symptoms) for Zika virus disease is not known, but is likely to be a few days to a week.
The illness is usually mild with symptoms lasting for several days to a week.
People usually don’t get sick enough to go to the hospital, and they very rarely die of Zika.
Zika virus usually remains in the blood of an infected person for about a week but it can be found longer in
some people.


Diagnosis
The symptoms of Zika are similar to those of dengue and chikungunya, diseases spread through the same mosquitoes that transmit Zika.
See your healthcare provider if you develop the symptoms described above and have visited an area where Zika is found.
If you have recently traveled, tell your healthcare provider when and where you traveled.
Your healthcare provider may order specialized blood tests to look for Zika or other similar viruses like dengue or chikungunya.
[/b]

Treatment

There is no vaccine to prevent or specific medicine to treat Zika infections.
Treat the symptoms:
Get plenty of rest.
Drink fluids to prevent dehydration.
Take medicine such as acetaminophen (Tylenol®) to relieve fever and pain.
Do not take aspirin and other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.
If you are taking medicine for another medical condition, talk to your healthcare provider before taking additional medication.
If you have Zika, prevent mosquito bites for the first week of your illness.
During the first week of infection, Zika virus can be found in the blood and passed from an infected person to a mosquito through mosquito bites.
An infected mosquito can then spread the virus to other people.


credit to source:
Every thought you produce, anything you say, any action you do, it bears your personality.



Pinoytambay

Re: Health Advisory: ZIKA Virus
« Reply #8 on: February 15, 2016, 07:43:08 PM »

 


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